Urology Scientific References

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LATEST RESEARCH UPDATE: A 2023 Cochrane Review concluded that cranberry products reduce the risk of symptomatic, culture-verified UTIs. This review included 50 studies and 8857 participants and found: 1) cranberry products (juice, tablets, or capsules) significantly reduced the risk of symptomatic, culture-verified UTIs in all groups (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.84); 2) Cranberry tablets or capsules significantly reduced the risk of symptomatic, culture-verified UTIs (RR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.49 to 0.84). The review also evaluated cranberry products separately in six different populations, and found statistically significant UTI risk reduction among: Women with a history of recurrent UTIs (RR= 0.74, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.99), children (RR= 0.46, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.68) and adults with susceptibility to urinary UTI associated with medical or surgical intervention (RR= 0.47, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.61). For more information check out the research abstract.


Bladder Cancer

Vitamin A
Vitamin B6
Vitamin C
Vitamin D
Vitamin E


Kidney Stones

Vitamin B6


Prostate Cancer, BPH and Prostatitis

Curcumin (Turmeric)

(2017/12) Increased dietary and circulating lycopene are associated with reduced prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

(2017/06) Tomato-based randomized controlled trial in prostate cancer patients: Effect on PSA.

(2015/11) A systematic review of dietary, nutritional, and physical activity interventions for the prevention of prostate cancer progression and mortality.

(2009/03) Lycopene for advanced hormone refractory prostate cancer: a prospective, open phase II pilot study.

(2007/09) Plasma carotenoids, retinol, and tocopherols and the risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.

(2006/03) Diet after diagnosis and the risk of prostate cancer progression, recurrence, and death (United States).

(2005/11) Lycopene as a chemopreventive agent in the treatment of high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia.

(2004/09) Lycopene: a novel drug therapy in hormone refractory metastatic prostate cancer

(2003/11) Prostate Carcinogenesis in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea(NMU)- Testosterone-Treated Rats Fed Tomato Powder, Lycopene, or Energy-Restricted Diets

(2003/09) A comparison of lycopene and orchidectomy vs orchidectomy alone in the management of advanced prostate cancer.

(2002/11) Effects of lycopene supplementation in patients with localized prostate cancer.

(2002/11) Tomato sauce supplementation and prostate cancer: lycopene accumulation and modulation of biomarkers of carcinogenesis.

(2002/03) A prospective study of tomato products, lycopene, and prostate cancer risk

(2001/08) Phase II randomized clinical trial of lycopene supplementation before radical prostatectomy.

(1995/12) Intake of carotenoids and retinol in relation to risk of prostate cancer.

Omega-3 Fish Oil
Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA)
Rye Grass Flower Pollen Extract
Saw Palmetto

(2020/07) A double blind, placebo-controlled randomized comparative study on the efficacy of phytosterol-enriched and conventional saw palmetto oil in mitigating benign prostate hyperplasia and androgen deficiency.

(2019/02) 15 years' survey of safety and efficacy of Serenoa repens extract in benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with risk of progression.

(2018/04) Efficacy and safety of a hexanic extract of Serenoa repens (Permixon®) for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH): systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies.

(2015/12) Effects of hexanic extract of serenoa repens (permixon® 160 mg) on inflammation biomarkers in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia.

(2015/07) Comparison of tamsulosin plus serenoa repens with tamsulosin in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in Korean men: 1-year randomized open label study.

(2013/12) Does the addition of Serenoa repens to tamsulosin improve its therapeutical efficacy in benign prostatic hyperplasia?

(2013/08) The results of the 10-year study of efficacy and safety of Serenoa repens extract in patients at risk of progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia

(2013/04) Safety and toxicity of saw palmetto in the CAMUS trial.

(2013/02) Improving BPH symptoms and sexual dysfunctions with a saw palmetto preparation? Results from a pilot trial.

(2012/09) Observational database serenoa repens (DOSSER): overview, analysis and results. A multicentric SIUrO (Italian Society of Oncological Urology) project.

(2012/06) Multicentre study on the efficacy and tolerability of an extract of Serenoa repens in patients with chronic benign prostate conditions associated with inflammation.

(2012/02) The effect of increasing doses of saw palmetto fruit extract on serum prostate specific antigen: analysis of the CAMUS randomized trial.

(2011/09) Effect of increasing doses of saw palmetto extract on lower urinary tract symptoms: a randomized trial.

(2011/03) Long-term efficacy of Serenoa repens treatment in patients with mild and moderate symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia.

(2010/09) Serenoa repens (Permixon®) reduces intra- and postoperative complications of surgical treatments of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

(2007/03) A prospective study of the efficacy of Serenoa repens, tamsulosin, and Serenoa repens plus tamsulosin treatment for patients with benign prostate hyperplasia.

(2005/03) Serenoa repens (Permixon) inhibits the 5alpha-reductase activity of human prostate cancer cell lines without interfering with PSA expression.

(2004/06) Evaluation of the clinical benefit of permixon and tamsulosin in severe BPH patients-PERMAL study subset analysis.

(2002/06) Comparison of a phytotherapeutic agent (Permixon) with an alpha-blocker (Tamsulosin) in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a 1-year randomized international study

(1996/10) Comparison of phytotherapy (Permixon) with finasteride in the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia: a randomized international study of 1,098 patients.


(2017/02) Serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk: A MOOSE-compliant meta-analysis.

(2016/07) Selenium and Prostate Cancer: Analysis of Individual Participant Data From Fifteen Prospective Studies.

(2015/11) A systematic review of dietary, nutritional, and physical activity interventions for the prevention of prostate cancer progression and mortality.

(2015/10) Cancer Chemoprevention Research with Selenium in the Post-SELECT Era: Promises and Challenges.

(2013/04) Selenium and prostate cancer prevention: insights from the selenium and vitamin E cancer prevention trial (SELECT).

(2012/07) Selenium and prostate cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis.

(2009/08) Plasma selenium, manganese superoxide dismutase, and intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer

(2009/01) Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial

(2004/05) A prospective study of plasma selenium levels and prostate cancer risk.

(2003/05) Selenium supplementation, baseline plasma selenium status and incidence of prostate cancer: an analysis of the complete treatment period of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial.

(2003/02) Serum selenium and risk of prostate cancer in U.S. blacks and whites.

(2002/11) Influence of Selenium-enriched Yeast Supplementation on Biomarkers of Oxidative Damage and Hormone Status in Healthy Adult Males: A Clinical Pilot Study.

(1998/05) Decreased incidence of prostate cancer with selenium supplementation: results of a double-blind cancer prevention trial.


(2019/01) Soy Isoflavones Protect Normal Tissues While Enhancing Radiation Responses.

(2018/01) Soy Consumption and the Risk of Prostate Cancer: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

(2016/07) Is phytoestrogen intake associated with decreased risk of prostate cancer? A systematic review of epidemiological studies based on 17,546 cases.

(2015/11)Consumption of soy isoflavone enriched bread in men with prostate cancer is associated with reduced proinflammatory cytokines and immunosuppressive cells.

(2015/11) A systematic review of dietary, nutritional, and physical activity interventions for the prevention of prostate cancer progression and mortality.

(2011/07) Soy isoflavones sensitize cancer cells to radiotherapy

(2010/10) Soy isoflavones in conjunction with radiation therapy in patients with prostate cancer.

(2010/07) Combined inhibitory effects of soy isoflavones and curcumin on the production of prostate-specific antigen.

(2010/06) A phase II trial of a soy beverage for subjects without clinical disease with rising prostate-specific antigen after radical radiation for prostate cancer.

(2010/01) Differential effects of whole soy extract and soy isoflavones on apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.

(2008/05) Phase II trial of isoflavone in prostate-specific antigen recurrent prostate cancer after previous local therapy.

(2007/08) Dietary isoflavones may protect against prostate cancer in Japanese men.

(2007/06) Soy isoflavones enhance radiotherapy in a metastatic prostate cancer model.

(2006/06) Serum prostate-specific antigen but not testosterone levels decrease in a randomized soy intervention among men.

(2004/05) The specific role of isoflavones in reducing prostate cancer risk.

(2003/11) Soy Isoflavones in the Treatment of Prostate Cancer

(2002/10) Genestein and vitamin D synergistically inhibit human prostatic epithelial cell growth.

(2001/02) Genetein Potentiates the Radiation Effect on Prostate Carcinoma Cells

(1998/12) Does high soy milk intake reduce prostate cancer incidence?

Vitamin D

(2018/10) Circulating vitamin D level and mortality in prostate cancer patients: a dose-response meta-analysis.

(2018/10) Impact of serum 25-OH vitamin D level on lower urinary tract symptoms in men: a step towards reducing overactive bladder.

(2017/07) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin D binding protein, and prostate cancer risk in black men.

(2017/03) Low vitamin D status is associated with inflammation in patients with prostate cancer.

(2017/01) Race and BMI modify associations of calcium and vitamin D intake with prostate cancer.

(2016/12) Association between Serum 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D and Aggressive Prostate Cancer in African American Men.

(2016/04) Associations Between Serum Vitamin D and Adverse Pathology in Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy.

(2016/04) Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Prostate Cancer Survival.

(2016/01) A prospective study of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and prostate cancer risk.

(2016/01) Vitamin D, PTH, and calcium and tumor aggressiveness in prostate cancer: a prospective nested case-control study.

(2014/08) Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D concenrations and Risk of Prostate Cancer: Results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

(2014/01) Vitamin D and prostate cancer survival in veterans.

(2012/05) Vitamin d-related genetic variation, plasma vitamin d, and risk of lethal prostate cancer: a prospective nested case-control study.

(2012/04) Vitamin D3 Supplementation at 4000 International Units Per Day for One Year Results in a Decrease of Positive Cores at Repeat Biopsy in Subjects with Low-Risk Prostate Cancer under Active Surveillance.

(2011/10) Associations of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D with prostate cancer diagnosis, stage and grade.

(2011/10) Vitamin D deficiency in the urological population: a single center analysis

(2011/09) Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and prostate cancer risk in a large nested case-control study

(2009/01) Association between serum 25(OH)D and death from prostate cancer

(2006/09) Rise in prostate-specific antigen in men with untreated low-grade prostate cancer is slower during spring-summer.

(2005/01) Pilot study: potential role of vitamin D (Cholecalciferol) in patients with PSA relapse after definitive therapy.

(2004/01) Both high and low levels of blood vitamin D are associated with a higher prostate cancer risk

(2002/03) An estimate of premature cancer mortality in the U.S. due to inadequate doses of solar ultraviolet-B radiation.

Vitamin E


Urinary Tract Infections


(2023/04) Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections.

(2021/06) Non-antibiotic interventions for prevention of urinary tract infections in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

(2019/05) Recurrent Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections In Women: AUA/CUA/SUFU Guideline.

(2018/10) Cranberry Standardized Capsules May Prevent Recurrences of Urinary Tract Infections in Children.

(2017/12) Cranberry Reduces the Risk of Urinary Tract Infection Recurrence in Otherwise Healthy Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

(2017/09) Can Cranberries Contribute to Reduce the Incidence of Urinary Tract Infections? A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis of Clinical Trials.

(2016/11) Effect of Cranberry Capsules on Bacteriuria Plus Pyuria Among Older Women in Nursing Homes: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

(2016/09) Effect of oral cranberry extract (standardized proanthocyanidin-A) in patients with recurrent UTI by pathogenic E. coli: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical research study.

(2016/06) Consumption of a cranberry juice beverage lowered the number of clinical urinary tract infection episodes in women with a recent history of urinary tract infection.

(2015/12) Cranberry Products for the Prophylaxis of Urinary Tract Infections in Pediatric Patients.

(2015/08) Cranberry juice capsules and urinary tract infection after surgery: results of a randomized trial.

(2015/01) Cranberry supplementation in the prevention of non-severe lower urinary tract infections: a pilot study.

(2014/01) Effectiveness of cranberry capsules to prevent urinary tract infections in vulnerable older persons: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial in long-term care facilities.

(2012/10) Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections.

(2012/07) Cranberry-containing products for prevention of urinary tract infections in susceptible populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

(2011/06) Inhibition of adherence of multi-drug resistant E. coli by proanthocyanidin

(2011/01) Cranberry juice fails to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection: results from a randomized placebo-controlled trial

(2009/07) Effects of cranberry juice on pharmacokinetics of beta-lactam antibiotics following oral administration

(2009/02) Cranberry or trimethoprim for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections? A randomized controlled trial in older women

(2008/10) Daily cranberry juice for the prevention of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: a randomized, controlled pilot study.

(2007/06) Cranberry products inhibit adherence of p-fimbriated Escherichia coli to primary cultured bladder and vaginal epithelial cells.

(2007/04) Biosafety, antioxidant status, and metabolites in urine after consumption of dried cranberry juice in healthy women: a pilot double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

(2006/02) Reduction of Escherichia coli adherence to uroepithelial bladder cells after consumption of cranberry juice: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled cross-over trial.

(2005/11) Inhibition of uropathogenic Escherichia coli by cranberry juice: a new antiadherence assay.

(2005/09) A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins and uropathogenic bacterial anti-adhesion activity.

(2005/05) Does ingestion of cranberry juice reduce symptomatic urinary tract infections in older people in hospital? A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

(2002/06) A randomized trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost effectiveness of naturopathic cranberry products as prophylaxis against urinary tract infection in women.

(2001/06) Randomised trial of cranberry-lingonberry juice and Lactobacillus GG drink for the prevention of urinary tract infections in women.

(1998/10) Inhibition of the adherence of P-fimbriated Escherichia coli to uroepithelial-cell surfaces by proanthocyanidin extracts from cranberries.






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